Another study found evidence of gender and ethnicity biases in academia. This time, the authors looked at the discriminations that might occur upon entry into academia, by studying the rejection rate of emails from fictional students asking for a “mentoring” opportunity. Here’s the abstract (highlighted by me) :
Little is known about how discrimination against women and minorities manifests before individuals formally apply to organizations or how it varies within and between organizations. We address this knowledge gap through an audit study in academia of over 6,500 professors at top U.S. universities drawn from 89 disciplines and 259 institutions. We hypothesized that discrimination would appear at the informal “pathway” preceding entry to academia and would vary by discipline and university as a function of faculty representation and pay. In our experiment, professors were contacted by fictional prospective students seeking to discuss research opportunities prior to applying to a doctoral program. Names of students were randomly assigned to signal gender and race (Caucasian, Black, Hispanic, Indian, Chinese), but messages were otherwise identical. We found that faculty ignored requests from women and minorities at a higher rate than requests from Caucasian males, particularly in higher-paying disciplines and private institutions. Counterintuitively, the representation of women and minorities and discrimination were uncorrelated, suggesting that greater representation cannot be assumed to reduce discrimination. This research highlights the importance of studying what happens before formal entry points into organizations and reveals that discrimination is not evenly distributed within and between organizations.
I find particularly interesting (but somehow not surprising) that 1) the effect is more pronounced in higher-paying disciplines and private institutions and that 2) there is no correlation between the representativity of women and minorities in the institution and the discrimination.
It shows once again (after the Moss-Racusin paper) how deeply stereotypes are engrained in our minds. Those studies are incredibly important to have people realize and accept that we’re all biased, so that we can start actively questioning each of our choices or judgements to try and deconstruct them. Or, as explained by one of the authors in this Podcast, find ways to systematize our answers in order to leave less space for unconscious discriminations. The comments section of this NPR broadcast is also very interesting to read, with people fighting against the idea that they might be biased by pointing out reasons such as “profs are busy, they won’t answer all their emails” showing a clear misunderstanding of the methods, but others raising interesting methodological questions.